Here below are some most important facts related to India’s past Governors Generals And Viceroys. These are vital points which must known to all students aspiring to get inducted in the country elite government service.
Warren Hastings (1773- 1785) : He brought the dual government of Bengal to an end by the regulating act of 1773. In order to promote the Islamic studies, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa in 1781. This was the first educational institute setup by the company’s government.
He auctioned the right to collect revenue to the highest bidder, Divided Bengal into districts and appointed collectors and other revenue officials. Zamindars were granted judicial powers and civil and criminal courts were also established in each district.
Lord Cornwallis (1786- 1793) : He was the person to codify the laws in year 1793. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice. He introduced the system of permanent settlement. He also fought the famous Anglo Mysore war.
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) : He started the Subsidiary Alliance system to achieve British Paramountcy in India. He was called as father for the Civil Services in India, as he opened a college in Calcutta to train company’s servants. He fought fourth Mysore war and Second Maratha war.
Lord Hastings (1813-1823) : He introduced Royatwari system in Madras. The first vernacular newspapers Samahar Patrika begin to be published during his tenure. He also fought third Maratha War.
Lord William Bentinck (1828-1833) : He replaced Persian by Vernaculars and Scott language. English was accepted as the medium of instruction after the famous Macaulay’s recommendation. Medical college in Calcutta was established in 1835.
Residuary system was introduced during his tenure. Sati system got abolished in 1829. Suppression was thuggee in central India, Banning of female infanticide and human sacrifice. Reforms in the Hindu law of inheritance were also introduced.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856) : In order to introduce the administrative control over princely sates, He introduced Doctrine of Lapse. He fought the second Anglo Sikh War and annexed the Punjab.
The first railway rolled out between Bombay to Thane in year 1853. During his tenure Charles Woods Dispatch recommended the setting up of universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. In 1853 competitive examination for Indian Civil Service began. He also passed the famous window remarriage Act, 1856.
Lord Canning ( 1856-1858) : During his tenure Awadh was annexed, Widow Remarriage Bill enacted, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras Universities established, passed an Act of 1858 which ended up the rule of East India Company In India and Doctrine of Lapse was withdrawn.
Lord Lytton (1876-1880): He accelerated the wealth drain from India by abolishing duties and introducing free trade in India. Arranged Grand Durbar in Delhi in 1877 when India was in clutches of severe famine, passed the Vernacular Press Act of 1878. He also proposed the plan of statutory Civil Service in 1878-79 and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years.
Lord Ripon (1880-1884): He tried to overcome the damage done by the Lord Lytton and by other British Governor Generals by repealing the Vernacular Press Act 1882, introducing the first factory Act,1881 to improve the condition of labor.
He passed the resolution of Local Self Government in 1882, Appointed Hunter commission for reforms in education. Meanwhile the Elbert Bill controversy erupted which enabled the Indian District Magistrates to try European criminals and hence he had to quit.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905): He appointed police commission to review police administration, set up Universities commission and accordingly the Indian university Act of 1904 and the partition of Bengal took place in 1905.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921) : Home Rule League was launched during his tenure by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Anne Besant in 1916, Lucknow Pact between congress and Muslim League in 1916, Champaran Styagraha in 1917, Montague’s August declaration 1917, Government of India Act 1919 , Repressive Rowlett Act 1919, Jaliawala Bagh Massacre (1919), Khilafat Movement (1919-1922) and Non- cooperation Movement (1920-1922).
Lord Linlithgow (1936-1943): Formation of congress ministries in 1937 and then resignation of congress ministries in 1939.
Deliverance day by Muslim League was organized in year 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose lead the foundation of forward block in year 1939, Lahore Resolution was passed in 1940, August offer in 1940, and Cripps Mission 1942, and Quit India movement started in 1942.
Lord Wavell (1943-1947) : C.R Formula in 1944, Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference in 1945, Cabinet mission 1946, Direct Action Day by Muslim League on 16th August and the first meeting of Constituent Assembly was held on Dec 9.1946.
Lord Mountbatten (March- August 1947) : Introduction of Independence Bill in house of commons. Appointment of two Boundary commission under Sir Cryil Radcliffe.